This course is intended to provide an introduction to the unique legal and political position of the world’s 370 million Indigenous Peoples. Given the immensity of the variations in lifestyle, economic and social circumstances, traditional belief systems, levels of involvement in state governance and different legal positions within nation states, this course can only provide an overview of this fascinating topic. The course will begin with a review of the development of international law in the context of European expansion to the Americas and Africa in the 1500s to the mid 1900s.We will then examine in detail the specific historical and legal developments in the USA, Canada, Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand as case studies through examining similarities, differences and the way legal and political ideas have travelled amongst the 4 countries. The course will end with a return to international law to examine how the law has been radically transformed over the past 40 years.